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To till or not to till? The arguments for and against no-till crop establishment are by no means clear-cut.
See also: No-till cultivations crucial to farmers. In fact, when you took varietal improvements into account, we were seeing a decline in yields — something I was obviously very keen to reverse.
Delving deeper into the data, Mr Walston became convinced that the drop-off in crop performance and increased spend on inputs were down to a couple of key issues — a fall in soil organic matter and a lack of diversity in flora and fauna on the soil surface.
Pretty quickly he realised one way to halt this decline was to use cover cropping to ensure stubbles did not go bare — but that was just a small part of the picture.
Keen to investigate what more he could do, he secured a Nuffield scholarship and embarked on a two-year research project to discover what he could learn from other growers facing similar issues around the world.
To me that seemed like the obvious route for us to go down as a first step in improving soil health. It seems those farms that are doing it have had to spend extraordinary amounts of money on the bits of kit to do the job.
The crops came up and yielded just as well as the more conventionally established ones. I wanted to see how well a disc-type drill would work in our conditions.
Ultimately I would like something to run alongside the Horsch. Intrigued by how such an outlay could be justified, Mr Walston wanted to see exactly how crops established with the three different machines would perform on his own land, side-by-side in one field.
The design is similar to a square drive Robertson , but can be engaged at more frequent angles by the driver bit. The name derives from overlaying three equal squares to form such a pattern with 12 right-angled protrusions a pointed star.
The design is similar to that of the double-square —in both cases, the idea being that it resembles a square Robertson but can be engaged at more frequent angles by the driver bit.
These screws can be driven with standard Robertson bits. Despite the similar naming scheme to metric fasteners, there is no correlation between the name of the size and the dimensions of the tool.
In practice, drivers for the fasteners may or may not interchange, but should be examined carefully for proper fit before application of force.
A hex key should not be used where a key of square cross-section is the correct fit. Triple-square drive fasteners have been used in high-torque applications, such as cylinder head bolts and drive train components.
The fasteners involved have heads that are hardened and tempered to withstand the driving torque without destroying the star points.
The hex socket screw drive has a hexagonal recess and may be driven by a hex wrench , also known as an Allen wrench , Allen key , hex key , or inbus as well as by a hex screwdriver also known as a hex driver or bit.
Tamper-resistant versions with a pin in the recess are available. In many countries it is commonly but incorrectly called "i m bus". Double hex is a screw drive with a socket shaped as two coaxial offset hex recesses; it can be driven by standard hex key tools.
The shape resembles triple square and spline screw drives, but they are incompatible. The radial "height" of each arris is reduced, compared to a six-point, although their number is doubled.
They are potentially capable of allowing more torque than a six-point, but greater demands are placed on the metallurgy of the heads and the tools used, to avoid rounding off and slippage.
The pentalobe screw drive often mistaken for 5-point torx screw drives is a five-pointed tamper-resistant system being implemented by Apple in its products.
Inexpensive pentalobe screwdrivers, manufactured by third parties, are relatively easy to obtain. The TS designation is ambiguous as it is also used for a Torq-set screw drive.
This recess is optimized to fit on the threaded end of aerospace fasteners. These fasteners allow for tightening the nut and holding the bolt simultaneously, on the same side of the structure, by only one operator.
The tamper-resistant variant of Torx Plus,  sometimes called Torx Plus Security , is a five-lobed variant, with a center post.
It is used for security as the drivers are uncommon. It was designed to permit increased torque transfer from the driver to the bit compared to other drive systems.
The drive was developed in  by Camcar Textron. A tamper-resistant Security Torx head has a small pin inside the recess.
Owing to its six-fold symmetry, a Torx driver can also be used as an improvised substitute for a hex driver, although careful sizing is critical to prevent stripping the socket.
Torx Plus is an improved version of Torx that extends tool life even further and permits greater torque transfer compared to Torx. An External Torx version exists, where the screw head has the shape of a Torx screwdriver bit, and a Torx socket is used to drive it.
A further improvement over Torx Plus. Torx ttap is a version of Torx that reduces wobbling between the fastener and the tool, and is backward compatible with standard hexalobular tools.
Some screws have heads designed to accommodate more than one kind of driver, sometimes referred to as combo-head or combi-head.
The idea is that first screwdriver out of the toolbox is used, and the user does not have to waste valuable time searching for the correct driver.
Some screwdriver manufacturers solve this problem offer matching screwdrivers and call them "Modulo", "Plus-minus", or "contractor screwdrivers", although the original concept of not needing to search for a particular driver is defeated.
Other combinations are a Phillips and Robertson, a Robertson and a slotted, a Torx and a slotted and a triple-drive screw that can take a slotted, Phillips or a Robertson.
While a standard Phillips or Robertson tool can be used, there is also a dedicated tool for it that increases the surface area between the tool and the fastener so it can handle more torque.
The Recex drive system claims it offers the combined non-slip convenience of a Robertson drive during production assembly and Phillips for after market serviceability.
A combined slotted and Torx drive screw was used in electronics manufacturing. For example, Compaq used this type to combine the benefits of Torx in manufacturing and the commonality of flat drive in field repair situations.
The slot was closed on the ends to prevent the flat-blade tool from slipping out sideways and damaging nearby electronics.
There are two types of clutch screw drives: Type A and Type G. Type A, also known as a "standard clutch", resembles a bow tie , with a small circular "knot" at the center.
These were common in GM automobiles, trucks and buses of the s and s. Type G resembles a butterfly, and lacks the center "knot".
This type of screw head is commonly used in the manufacture of mobile homes and recreational vehicles. A thumbscrew is a type of screw drive with either a tall head and ridged or knurled sides, or a key-like flat sided vertical head.
They are intended to be tightened and loosened by hand, and not found in structural applications. They are sometimes also cut for Phillips head or slotted screwdrivers as well as having the knurl for finger grip.
ASME They can be found on many computer cases , and in other locations where easy access without tools is desired. External drives are characterized by a female tool and a male fastener.
An advantage of external drive fasteners is that they lack a recess in the head, which can collect water, dirt, or paint, which can interfere with later insertion of a driver tool.
Also, some external drives can be engaged from the side, without requiring large inline clearance for tool access, which allows their use in tight spaces such as engines or complex pipework.
Because the heads must stand out from the surface they attach to, they are rarely available in countersunk or flush designs.
A square screw drive uses four-sided fastener heads which can be turned with an adjustable wrench , open-end wrench , or 8- or point  sockets.
Common in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it was easier and cheaper to manufacture than most other drives, it is less common today although still easy to find because the external hex is now cost-competitive and allows better access for wrenching despite nearby obstructions.
A hex screw drive uses six-sided fastener heads, and the fastener is known as a hex head cap screw. It can be turned with an adjustable wrench, combination wrench and 6- or point sockets.
The hex drive is better than square drive for locations where surrounding obstacles limit wrenching access, because smaller wrench-swing arcs can still successfully rotate the fastener.
A pentagon screw drive uses five-sided fastener heads, and the fastener is known as a penta screw or penta bolt. It is designed to be intrinsically incompatible with many tools.
Since five is an odd number , it cannot be turned by open-end or adjustable wrenches , which have parallel faces and thus require a fastener with an even number of sides.
Moreover, it cannot be turned by typical consumer- and professional-grade socket drivers, which possess either six or twelve points neither of which are multiples of five.
Penta nut security fasteners also are available, which can only be driven by specialized five-sided socket drivers. However, the security feature of this design can be bypassed by using some type of pliers if enough force is applied.
Due to the difficulty of turning these fasteners without specialized and uncommon five-point wrenches such as hydrant wrenches , they are commonly used for tamper resistance by public utilities on water meter covers, natural gas valves, electrical cabinets, and fire hydrants.
An external Torx screw has a projecting head in the shape of a Torx screwdriver bit instead of a standard recessed cavity ; a Torx socket is used to drive it.
The external "E" Torx nominal sizing does not correspond to the "T" size for example, an E40 socket is too large to fit a T40, while an E8 Torx socket will fit a T40 Torx bit .
These screws are most commonly encountered in the motor industry. Standard point hex socket bits and wrenches fit these screws.
The screw heads are typically flanged, and may fit into standard Allen hex socket cap screw counterbores molded or machined into parts to be fastened.
Compared to Allen hex sockets, the advantages of these bolts include higher torque capability and the lack of a recess to trap water.
A disadvantage is the extra cost involved in forming the heads. Most of the following screw drives are considered tamper-resistant because of their obscurity.
Tamper-resistant drives are commonly used on equipment such as home electronics , to prevent easy access thereby reducing the incidence of damage, improper repairs or repairs by people without the relevant technical knowledge.
Recent widespread availability of assorted drive bits including security types minimizes this advantage, at least for some fastener types.
True tamper-resistant screw drives include the breakaway head and one-way screw drives. In addition to screw drives, various nut drives have been designed to make removal difficult without specialized tools.
The breakaway head also called breakoff or shear fastener  is a high-security fastener whose head breaks off during installation, during or immediately after the driving process, to leave only a smooth surface.
It typically consists of a countersunk flat-head bolt, with a thin shank and hex head protruding from the flat head. The hex head is used to drive the bolt into the countersunk hole, then either a wrench or hammer is used to break the shank and hex head from the flat head, or it is driven until the driving head shears off.
Either method leaves only a smooth bolt head exposed. This type of bolt is commonly used with prison door locks, automobile ignition switches , and street signs , to prevent easy removal.
An alternative design leaves a low-profile button head visible after installation. In non-security applications, a breakaway head fastener is sometimes used as a crude torque limiter , intended to break off at an approximate torque limit.
For example, certain toilet seat fastener bolts use a breakaway plastic nut, with the driver part intended to shear at a torque high enough to prevent wobbling, while not shattering the porcelain toilet from excessive pressure.
Breakaway fasteners used in a non-security application may have a second driveable surface such as a hex head to allow later removal or adjustment of the fastener after the initial breakaway installation.
This drive type has the disadvantage of not being as precisely controlled as can be obtained by proper use of a torque wrench ; applications may still fail due to either too little torque being applied to correctly fasten the joint, or too much torque being required to shear the head, resulting in damage to the material being fastened.
The Bristol or Bristol spline screw drive is a fastener with four or six splines , but is not necessarily tamper resistant. The main advantage to this drive system is that almost all of the turning force is applied at right angles to the fastener spline face, which reduces the possibility of stripping the fastener.
For this reason Bristol screw drives are often used in softer, non-ferrous metals. Compared to an Allen drive, Bristol drives are less likely to strip for the same amount of torque; however, the Bristol drive is not much more strip-resistant than a Torx drive.
Goldwin and put into production by the Bristol Wrench Company. This type of drive is commonly used in avionics , higher-end communications equipment, cameras, air brakes, construction and farm equipment, astronomy equipment, and military equipment.
Variants with a pin in the center are often found in game systems, to discourage improvised attempts to use a slotted screwdriver to drive the fastener.
The line screw drive is a Japanese system with male, female and female tamper-resistant screw configurations. The fasteners are commonly called "line head screws".
They are also known as "game bit screws", due to their use on some video game consoles. One-way screws are special screws that can be turned only in one direction.
They are sometimes called one-way clutch screws , but should not be confused with true "clutch" screws. They can be installed with a standard flat-blade screwdriver, but cannot be easily removed using standard tools.
One-way screws are commonly used in commercial restroom fixtures and on vehicle registration plates , to prevent vandals from tampering with them.
One-way screws are practical only when the need for removal is unlikely. They are difficult to remove with conventional tools because the slot is designed to cause cam out when even minimal torque is applied in the direction to unscrew it.
Instead, a one-way screw can be removed by drilling a hole through the head of the screw and inserting a screw extractor.
Alternatively, a rotary tool with cutting disk can be used to extend the slot, the head can be gripped with locking pliers , or the screw can be removed with a pin spanner snake-eyes driver after drilling two holes in the slot.
It can also sometimes be removed by attaching a precision drill chuck tightly to the screw head, in a manner similar to removing screws that have broken heads.
Espresso makers from Jura Elektroapparate use a proprietary screw head with an eccentric oval to dissuade users from servicing their own machine, but the tool required or just the bit for a common driver is usually available from the same places that sell the parts directly to consumers.
The polydrive screw drive, also known as RIBE ,  is spline-shaped with rounded ends in the fastener head.
The tool has six flat teeth at equal spacing; the sizes are determined by the diameter of the star points. Its primary advantage over older screw drives is that it resists cam out.
It is used primarily in the automotive industry in high-torque applications, such as brakes and driveshafts. There are specialty fastener companies that make unusual, proprietary head designs, such as Slot-Lok and Avsafe.
For further security, there are custom-designed fastener heads requiring matching drivers available only from the manufacturer and only supplied to registered owners, similar to keyed locks.
The Ultra-Lok, and Ultra-Lok II are some of these designs that use custom keyed drivers, which tend to be confined to industrial and institutional uses that are unavailable to the average layperson.
Key-Rex screws are another design, and are used in such things as ballot boxes and bank vaults. One example familiar to laypersons is for the attachment of wheels and spare tires of passenger vehicles to deter theft; one of the lug nuts on each wheel may require a specialized socket provided with the set of lug nuts.
Similar security fasteners are also available for bicycle wheels and seats. A security hex screw drive features an extruded pin to make the fastener more tamper resistant by inserting a pin in the fastener screw drive, requiring a tool with a corresponding hole to drive the fastener.
This can also prevent attempts at turning the screw with a small flat-bladed screwdriver. A security Torx screw drive is a common modification to socket and cruciform style drives to make the fastener more tamper resistant by inserting a pin in the fastener screw drive, requiring a tool with a corresponding hole to drive the fastener.
The spanner  or Snake-Eyes trademarked  screw drive uses two round holes sometimes two slots; the same driver bits work in both types opposite each other and is designed to prevent tampering.
Other informal names include pig nose , drilled head or twin hole. The driving tool is called a "spanner driver" or "spanner screwdriver"  in the US, and a "pin spanner" in the UK.
The US military's M17 and M18 service pistols variants of the SIG Sauer P use spanner screws to dissuade disassembly of the handgun beyond normal field maintenance except by the authorized armorer, they have also been used previously for reinforcement screws on the M14 in order to secure the front locking tab on the magazine well, and are commonly found on the recoil lug of surplus rifles.
The knife and gun manufacturer Microtech uses a variation of this with 3 round holes arranged in a triangle shape.
The camera company Leica Camera has used versions of this on rewind knobs and other levers on their rangefinder cameras. The spline flange screw drive has twelve splines in the fastener and tool.
The spline drive was part of the obsolete, U. Spline drives were specified for 5, 6. Torq-set is a cruciform screw drive used in torque-sensitive applications.
The Torq-set head is similar in appearance to a Phillips drive in that it has a cross with 4 arms. In Torq-set however, the lines are offset from each other, so they do not align to form intersecting slots across the top of the head.
Because of this, a regular Phillips or flat-blade screwdriver will not fit the head. It is used in military and aerospace applications.
The ribbed version is also known as ACR Torq-set. The TA is a type of screw drive that uses a triangle-shaped recess in the screw head.
This drive can restrict access to the device internals but can readily be driven with hex keys. These screws are often found in children's toys from fast food restaurants, as well as vacuum cleaners, fan heaters, elevators , camping stoves, golf clubs, Breville kettles and Master Locks, among others, Sizes include TA14, TA18, TA20, TA23 and TA The TP or Y-type security screw drive is similar to the Phillips screw head, but with three points rather than four.
These specialized screws are usually used on electronics equipment, including some Nintendo handheld hardware, Sanyo and Kyocera cellular telephones, and Fuji digital cameras.
TP3 sometimes referred to as tri-lobe or tri-lobular uses a Reuleaux triangle -shaped recess in the screw head, to make it semi-secure because it cannot be driven by a flat-blade screwdriver  and is not readily driven, as Tri-angle is, by hex keys.
It is used on fast food promotional toys and video games, die-cast toys, and some Roomba battery packs. Tri-groove or T-groove is a design for a security screw with a flat-topped conical head and three short radial slots that do not join in the center.