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The Blitz , September 7, —May 11, , intense bombing campaign undertaken by Nazi Germany against the United Kingdom during World War II. For eight months the Luftwaffe dropped bombs on London and other strategic cities across Britain.
On July 16, , Hitler issued a directive ordering the preparation and, if necessary, execution of Operation Sea Lion, the amphibious invasion of Great Britain.
A victory for the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain would indeed have exposed Great Britain to invasion and occupation. Sometimes they were trying establish a blockade by destroying shipping and port facilities, sometimes they were directly attacking Fighter Command ground installations, sometimes they were targeting aircraft factories, and sometimes they were attempting to engage Fighter Command in the skies.
The British, on the other hand, were supremely well prepared for the kind of battle in which they now found themselves. Their Chain Home early warning radar , the most advanced system in the world, gave Fighter Command adequate notice of where and when to direct their forces, and the Luftwaffe never made a concerted effort to neutralize it.
The British thus fought with the advantage of superior equipment and undivided aim against an enemy with inconsistent objectives. Nevertheless, through sheer weight of numbers, the Germans were on the brink of victory in late August The Luftwaffe had lost more than aircraft, and, although the RAF had lost fewer than half that many, the battle was claiming British fighters and experienced pilots at too great a rate.
Instead of pressing his advantage, however, Hitler abruptly changed his strategy. In late August the Germans dropped some bombs, apparently by accident, on civilian areas in London.
On August 25 the British retaliated by launching a bombing raid on Berlin. The raid so infuriated Hitler that he ordered the Luftwaffe to shift its attacks from RAF sites to London and other cities.
The British government had anticipated air attacks on its population centres, and it had predicted catastrophic casualties.
A Luftwaffe terror bombing attack on the Spanish city of Guernica April 26, during the Spanish Civil War had killed hundreds of civilians and destroyed much of the town.
Over the course of three days, some 1. The mass relocation, called Operation Pied Piper, was the largest internal migration in British history.
Authorities quickly implemented plans to protect Londoners from bombs and to house those left homeless by the attacks. The national government also provided funds to local municipalities to construct public air-raid shelters.
The Air Raid Precautions A. These shelters, made of corrugated steel, were designed to be dug into a garden and then covered with dirt.
While Anderson shelters offered good protection from bomb fragments and debris, they were cold and damp and generally ill-suited for prolonged occupancy.
Because basements , a logical destination in the event of an air raid, were a relative rarity in Britain, the A.
This type of shelter—essentially a low steel cage large enough to contain two adults and two small children—was designed to be set up indoors and could serve as a refuge if the building began to collapse.
In spite of blackouts, ubiquitous shelters and sandbags, the visible effects of mass evacuation, the presence of A.
The winter of —40 was severe, but the summer was pleasant, and in their leisure hours Londoners thronged the parks or worked in their gardens.
Several theatres and many cinemas were open, and there were even a few sporting events. Apart from one or two false alarms in the early days of the war, no sirens wailed in London until June The sense of relative calm was abruptly shattered in the first week of September , when the war came to London in earnest.
The Blitz began at about in the afternoon on September 7, , when German planes appeared over London. For two hours, German bombers and fighters targeted the city, dropping high-explosive bombs as well as incendiary devices.
Later, guided by the raging fires caused by the first attack, a second group of planes began another assault that lasted until the following morning.
In just these few hours, people were killed and 1, were badly injured. The first day of the Blitz is remembered as Black Saturday.
Beginning on Black Saturday, London was attacked on 57 straight nights. Nine were registered on three separate occasions, and from the start of the Blitz until November 30 there were more than alerts.
After the first week of September, although night bombing on a large scale continued, the large mass attacks by day, which had proved so costly to the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain, were replaced by smaller parties coming over in successive waves.
The A. No significant cut was made in necessary social services, and public and private premises , except when irreparably damaged, were repaired as speedily as possible.
In many cases the daily life of the city was able to resume with delays of only hours. The raids on London primarily targeted the Docklands area of the East End.
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Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate. Origin of blitz First recorded in —40; shortening of blitzkrieg.
OTHER WORDS FROM blitz blitzer, noun. WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH blitz blintze , blitz. Words nearby blitz blithe , blithely , blithering , blithesome , B.
Words related to blitz raid , onslaught , offensive , assault , bombardment , bombing , shelling , strike , blitzkrieg.
Example sentences from the Web for blitz The application arrives as public health experts gird for a blitz of coronavirus cases seeded by holiday travels and gatherings — a surge coming so soon that no vaccine can blunt it.
Moderna to ask the FDA to greenlight its coronavirus vaccine Carolyn Y. Johnson November 30, Washington Post.
Giants falls short Nicki Jhabvala November 8, Washington Post. But the great bulk of the traffic went on; and Londoners—though they glanced apprehensively each morning at the list of closed stretches of line displayed at their local station, or made strange detours round back streets in the buses—still got to work.
For all the destruction of life and property, the observers sent out by the Ministry of Home Security failed to discover the slightest sign of a break in morale.
More than 13, civilians had been killed, and almost 20, injured, in September and October alone,  but the death toll was much less than expected.
In late , Churchill credited the shelters. Wartime observers perceived the bombing as indiscriminate.
American observer Ralph Ingersoll reported the bombing was inaccurate and did not hit targets of military value, but destroyed the surrounding areas.
Ingersol wrote that Battersea Power Station , one of the largest landmarks in London, received only a minor hit. The British government grew anxious about the delays and disruption of supplies during the month.
Reports suggested the attacks blocked the movement of coal to the Greater London regions and urgent repairs were required.
The London Underground rail system was also affected; high explosive bombs damaged the tunnels rendering some unsafe.
British night air defences were in a poor state. Few fighter aircraft were able to operate at night. Ground-based radar was limited, and airborne radar and RAF night fighters were generally ineffective.
The difference this made to the effectiveness of air defences is questionable. The British were still one-third below the establishment of heavy anti-aircraft artillery AAA or ack-ack in May , with only 2, weapons available.
Dowding had to rely on night fighters. From to , the most successful night-fighter was the Boulton Paul Defiant ; its four squadrons shot down more enemy aircraft than any other type.
Over several months, the 20, shells spent per raider shot down in September , was reduced to 4, in January and to 2, shells in February Airborne Interception radar AI was unreliable.
The heavy fighting in the Battle of Britain had eaten up most of Fighter Command's resources, so there was little investment in night fighting.
Bombers were flown with airborne search lights out of desperation but to little avail. Of greater potential was the GL Gunlaying radar and searchlights with fighter direction from RAF fighter control rooms to begin a GCI system Ground Control-led Interception under Group-level control No.
Douglas set about introducing more squadrons and dispersing the few GL sets to create a carpet effect in the southern counties. Still, in February , there remained only seven squadrons with 87 pilots, under half the required strength.
The GL carpet was supported by six GCI sets controlling radar-equipped night-fighters. By the height of the Blitz, they were becoming more successful.
The number of contacts and combats rose in , from 44 and two in 48 sorties in January , to and 74 in May sorties.
But even in May, 67 per cent of the sorties were visual cat's-eye missions. Curiously, while 43 per cent of the contacts in May were by visual sightings, they accounted for 61 percent of the combats.
Yet when compared with Luftwaffe daylight operations, there was a sharp decline in German losses to one per cent.
If a vigilant bomber crew could spot the fighter first, they had a decent chance of evading it. Nevertheless, it was radar that proved to be the critical weapon in the night battles over Britain from this point onward.
Dowding had introduced the concept of airborne radar and encouraged its usage. Eventually it would become a success. By 16 February , this had grown to 12; with five equipped, or partially equipped with Beaufighters spread over five Groups.
From November to February , the Luftwaffe shifted its strategy and attacked other industrial cities. The next night, a large force hit Coventry.
Only one bomber was lost, to anti-aircraft fire, despite the RAF flying night sorties. No follow up raids were made, as OKL underestimated the British power of recovery as Bomber Command would do over Germany from to The concentration had been achieved by accident.
By the end of November, 1, bombers were available for night raids. An average of were able to strike per night. In December, only 11 major and five heavy attacks were made.
Probably the most devastating attack occurred on the evening of 29 December, when German aircraft attacked the City of London itself with incendiary and high explosive bombs, causing a firestorm that has been called the Second Great Fire of London.
At , it released the first of 10, fire bombs, eventually amounting to dropped per minute. Not all of the Luftwaffe effort was made against inland cities.
Port cities were also attacked to try to disrupt trade and sea communications. In January, Swansea was bombed four times, very heavily.
On 17 January around bombers dropped a high concentration of incendiaries, some 32, in all. The main damage was inflicted on the commercial and domestic areas.
Four days later tons was dropped including 60, incendiaries. In Portsmouth Southsea and Gosport waves of bombers destroyed vast swaths of the city with 40, incendiaries.
Warehouses, rail lines and houses were destroyed and damaged, but the docks were largely untouched. Seven major and eight heavy attacks were flown, but the weather made it difficult to keep up the pressure.
Still, at Southampton , attacks were so effective morale did give way briefly with civilian authorities leading people en masse out of the city. Although official German air doctrine did target civilian morale, it did not espouse the attacking of civilians directly.
It hoped to destroy morale by destroying the enemy's factories and public utilities as well as its food stocks by attacking shipping.
Nevertheless, its official opposition to attacks on civilians became an increasingly moot point when large-scale raids were conducted in November and December Although not encouraged by official policy, the use of mines and incendiaries, for tactical expediency, came close to indiscriminate bombing.
Locating targets in skies obscured by industrial haze meant the target area needed to be illuminated and hit "without regard for the civilian population".
The tactic was expanded into Feuerleitung Blaze Control with the creation of Brandbombenfelder Incendiary Fields to mark targets.
These were marked out by parachute flares. These decisions, apparently taken at the Luftflotte or Fliegerkorps level, meant attacks on individual targets were gradually replaced by what was, for all intents and purposes, an unrestricted area attack or Terrorangriff Terror Attack.
The effectiveness of British countermeasures against Knickebein , which was designed to avoid area attacks, forced the Luftwaffe to resort to these methods.
KGr increased its use of incendiaries from 13 to 28 percent. By December, this had increased to 92 percent. Other units ceased using parachute flares and opted for explosive target markers.
In , the Luftwaffe shifted strategy again. Erich Raeder —commander-in-chief of the Kriegsmarine —had long argued the Luftwaffe should support the German submarine force U-Bootwaffe in the Battle of the Atlantic by attacking shipping in the Atlantic Ocean and attacking British ports.
This meant that British coastal centres and shipping at sea west of Ireland were the prime targets.
Hitler's interest in this strategy forced Göring and Jeschonnek to review the air war against Britain in January This led to Göring and Jeschonnek agreeing to Hitler's Directive 23, Directions for operations against the British War Economy , which was published on 6 February and gave aerial interdiction of British imports by sea top priority.
Directive 23 was the only concession made by Göring to the Kriegsmarine over the strategic bombing strategy of the Luftwaffe against Britain.
Thereafter, he would refuse to make available any air units to destroy British dockyards, ports, port facilities, or shipping in dock or at sea, lest Kriegsmarine gain control of more Luftwaffe units.
Göring's lack of co-operation was detrimental to the one air strategy with potentially decisive strategic effect on Britain. Instead, he wasted aircraft of Fliegerführer Atlantik Flying Command Atlantic on bombing mainland Britain instead of attacks against convoys.
He was always reluctant to co-operate with Raeder. Even so, the decision by the OKL to support the strategy in Directive 23 was instigated by two considerations, both of which had little to do with wanting to destroy Britain's sea communications in conjunction with the Kriegsmarine.
First, the difficulty in estimating the impact of bombing upon war production was becoming apparent, and second, the conclusion British morale was unlikely to break led the OKL to adopt the naval option.
They emphasised the core strategic interest was attacking ports but they insisted in maintaining pressure, or diverting strength, onto industries building aircraft, anti-aircraft guns, and explosives.
Other targets would be considered if the primary ones could not be attacked because of weather conditions. A further line in the directive stressed the need to inflict the heaviest losses possible, but also to intensify the air war in order to create the impression an amphibious assault on Britain was planned for However, meteorological conditions over Britain were not favourable for flying and prevented an escalation in air operations.
Airfields became water-logged and the 18 Kampfgruppen bomber groups of the Luftwaffe ' s Kampfgeschwadern bomber wings were relocated to Germany for rest and re-equipment.
From the German point of view, March saw an improvement. The Luftwaffe flew 4, sorties that month, including 12 major and three heavy attacks.
The electronic war intensified but the Luftwaffe flew major inland missions only on moonlit nights. Ports were easier to find and made better targets.
To confuse the British, radio silence was observed until the bombs fell. X- and Y- Gerät beams were placed over false targets and switched only at the last minute.
Rapid frequency changes were introduced for X- Gerät , whose wider band of frequencies and greater tactical flexibility ensured it remained effective at a time when British selective jamming was degrading the effectiveness of Y- Gerät.
By now, the imminent threat of invasion had all but passed as the Luftwaffe had failed to gain the prerequisite air superiority.
The aerial bombing was now principally aimed at the destruction of industrial targets, but also continued with the objective of breaking the morale of the civilian population.
These attacks produced some breaks in morale, with civil leaders fleeing the cities before the offensive reached its height. But the Luftwaffe ' s effort eased in the last 10 attacks as seven Kampfgruppen moved to Austria in preparation for the Balkans Campaign in Yugoslavia and Greece.
The shortage of bombers caused OKL to improvise. The defences failed to prevent widespread damage but on some occasions did prevent German bombers concentrating on their targets.
On occasion, only one-third of German bombs hit their targets. The diversion of heavier bombers to the Balkans meant that the crews and units left behind were asked to fly two or three sorties per night.
Bombers were noisy, cold, and vibrated badly. Added to the tension of the mission which exhausted and drained crews, tiredness caught up with and killed many.
He fell asleep at the controls of his Ju 88 and woke up to discover the entire crew asleep. He roused them, ensured they took oxygen and Dextro-Energen tablets, then completed the mission.
The Luftwaffe could still inflict much damage and after the German conquest of Western Europe, the air and submarine offensive against British sea communications became much more dangerous than the German offensive during the First World War.
Liverpool and its port became an important destination for convoys heading through the Western Approaches from North America, bringing supplies and materials.
The considerable rail network distributed to the rest of the country. Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison was also worried morale was breaking, noting the defeatism expressed by civilians.
Roads and railways were blocked and ships could not leave harbour. Around 66, houses were destroyed and 77, people made homeless "bombed out"  , with 1, people killed and 1, seriously hurt on one night.
The populace of the port of Hull became "trekkers", people who made a mass exodus from cities before, during and after attacks. On 13 March, the upper Clyde port of Clydebank near Glasgow was bombed Clydebank Blitz.
All but seven of its 12, houses were damaged. Many more ports were attacked. Plymouth was attacked five times before the end of the month while Belfast, Hull, and Cardiff were hit.
Cardiff was bombed on three nights; Portsmouth centre was devastated by five raids. The rate of civilian housing lost was averaging 40, people per week dehoused in September In March , two raids on Plymouth and London dehoused , people.
Many houses and commercial centres were heavily damaged, the electrical supply was knocked out, and five oil tanks and two magazines exploded.
Nine days later, two waves of and bombers dropped heavy bombs, including tons of high explosive and 32, incendiaries.
Much of the city centre was destroyed. Damage was inflicted on the port installations, but many bombs fell on the city itself.
On 17 April tons of explosives and 46, incendiaries were dropped from bombers led by KG The damage was considerable, and the Germans also used aerial mines.
Over 2, AAA shells were fired, destroying two Ju 88s. In the north, substantial efforts were made against Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland , which were large ports on the English east coast.
On 9 April Luftflotte 2 dropped tons of high explosives and 50, incendiaries from bombers in a five-hour attack. Sewer, rail, docklands, and electric installations were damaged.
In Sunderland on 25 April, Luftflotte 2 sent 60 bombers which dropped 80 tons of high explosive and 9, incendiaries. Much damage was done. A further attack on the Clyde, this time at Greenock , took place on 6 and 7 May.
However, as with the attacks in the south, the Germans failed to prevent maritime movements or cripple industry in the regions.
This caused more than 2, fires; 1, people were killed and 1, seriously injured, which affected morale badly. One-third of London's streets were impassable.
All but one railway station line was blocked for several weeks. German air supremacy at night was also now under threat.
British night-fighter operations out over the Channel were proving successful. Added to the fact an interception relied on visual sighting, a kill was most unlikely even in the conditions of a moonlit sky.
It was faster, able to catch the bombers and its configuration of four machine guns in a turret could much like German night fighters in — with Schräge Musik engage the German bomber from beneath.
Attacks from below offered a larger target, compared to attacking tail-on, as well as a better chance of not being seen by the crew so less chance of evasion , as well as greater likelihood of detonating its bomb load.
In subsequent months a steady number of German bombers would fall to night fighters. Improved aircraft designs were in the offing with the Bristol Beaufighter, then under development.
It would prove formidable but its development was slow. In January , Fighter Command flew sorties against 1, made by the Germans.
Just three and twelve were claimed by the RAF and AA defences respectively. Night fighters could claim only four bombers for four losses.
By April and May , the Luftwaffe was still getting through to their targets, taking no more than one- to two-percent losses per mission.
In the following month, 22 German bombers were lost with 13 confirmed to have been shot down by night fighters. Between 20 June , when the first German air operations began over Britain, and 31 March , OKL recorded the loss of 2, aircraft over the British Isles, a quarter of them fighters and one third bombers.
At least 3, Luftwaffe aircrew were killed, 2, missing and 2, wounded. A significant number of the aircraft not shot down after the resort to night bombing were wrecked during landings or crashed in bad weather.
The military effectiveness of bombing varied. Despite the bombing, British production rose steadily throughout this period, although there were significant falls during April , probably influenced by the departure of workers for Easter Holidays, according to the British official history.
The official history volume British War Production Postan, noted that the greatest effect on output of warlike stores was on the supply of components and dispersal of production rather than complete equipments.
In aircraft production, the British were denied the opportunity to reach the planned target of 2, aircraft in a month, arguably the greatest achievement of the bombing, as it forced the dispersal of the industry, at first because of damage to aircraft factories and then by a policy of precautionary dispersal.
The attacks against Birmingham took war industries some three months to recover fully. The exhausted population took three weeks to overcome the effects of an attack.
The air offensive against the RAF and British industry failed to have the desired effect.A Yankee Flier Over Berlin Al Avery. From the beginning of the National Socialist regime untilthere was a debate Online Lotto Canada German military journals over the role of strategic bombardment, with some contributors arguing along the lines of the British and Americans. The most heavily bombed cities outside London were Liverpool and Cyberbingo Com. A major problem Handball Kroatien Spanien the managing of the Luftwaffe was Göring; Hitler believed the Luftwaffe was "the most effective strategic weapon", and in reply to repeated requests from the Kriegsmarine for control over aircraft insisted, "We should never have been able to hold our own in this war if we had not Aldi Casino an undivided Luftwaffe. Freeslotsforfun Cool 777 popular image arose of British people in the Second World War: a collection of people locked in national solidarity. I collected bits of them, but my blitz was safely vicarious. German sources estimated 5—10 per cent of bombs failed to explode; the British put the figure at 20 per cent. When the third cross-beam was reached the bomb aimer activated a third trigger, which stopped the first Arabian Tales of the clock, with the second hand continuing. Duel for the Sky: Ten Crucial Battles of World War II. A Aldi Casino Panzer Simulator bombing attack on the Spanish city of Guernica April 26, during the Spanish Civil War had killed hundreds of civilians and destroyed much of the town. Only one bomber was lost, to anti-aircraft fire, despite the RAF flying night sorties. Luftwaffe policy at this point was primarily to continue progressive attacks on London, chiefly by night attack; second, to interfere with production in the vast industrial arms factories of the West Midlandsagain chiefly by night attack; and third to disrupt plants and factories during Mgp Live day Slots For Fun Only Free means of fighter-bombers. The Blitz, (September 7, –May 11, ), intense bombing campaign undertaken by Nazi Germany against the United Kingdom during World War II. For eight months the Luftwaffe dropped bombs on London and other strategic cities across Britain. Sports glasses, Ski Goggles, and Helmets for Men and Women. Find your fit on bobartlettart.com Blitz uses the League Client APIs to automatically identify your champion and recommend the best runes and builds to counter your specific lane opponent. We also grab your teammate's Summoner Names when you enter champion select and automatically display their strengths and ranked win rates on their chosen champion. Hi I'm Blitz. I play a variety of games from the smallest indies to the big AAA titles and have a lot of fun doing it. Games like Among Us, Fall Guys, Minecraft, and Totally Accurate Battle. Blitzkrieg, (German: “lightning war”) military tactic calculated to create psychological shock and resultant disorganization in enemy forces through the employment of surprise, speed, and superiority in matériel or firepower. Battle of Britain Baedeker Blitz The Blitz Barrow-in-Furness Bath Belfast Birmingham Brighton Bristol Cardiff Clydebank Coventry Exeter Greenock Hull Leeds Liverpool London Manchester Norwich Nottingham Plymouth Sheffield Southampton Swansea. Locating targets in skies obscured by industrial haze meant the target area needed to be illuminated and hit "without regard for the civilian population". Public Record Office War Histories. Once surrounded, the Dealornodeal Casino army, demoralized and with no chance of escape, Wsop Main Event face the choice of annihilation or surrender.