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Click here! De man werd vorige week dinsdag in Heerlen opgepakt door de Dienst Speciale Interventies DSI in verband met een van de zes in Limburg lopende strafrechtelijke onderzoeken naar radicalisering en jihadisme in Limburg, waarvan het zwaartepunt in Maastricht en Sittard-Geleen ligt.
Dat laatste ontkent Grünfeld. Maar wel steeds andere vragen, steeds wilden ze een nieuwe begroting. Hij moest een vak kiezen dat hij niet wilde.
Hij moest afbreken wat hij had opgebouwd. Hij moest veel dierbaren achterlaten. Dat zegt een woordvoerster van de rechtbank Limburg.
Die zitting zal achter gesloten deuren plaatsvinden omdat de bekeerlinge minderjarig was toen ze vorig jaar de strafbare feiten pleegde.
Wij begrijpen niet welke gegevens u nog meer wilt ontvangen. Grünfeld en zijn medestanders leveren op 28 juni een nieuw plan in voor de hele provincie.
De kosten — voor onder meer steentjes — zijn gestegen tot Aan de provincie vragen ze ditmaal een bijdrage van Van een leien dakje gaat het vervolgens niet.
In augustus vraagt een. Maar de echte pijn zit in het contact met de provincie, leggen de initiatiefnemers uit. Ze hebben de kern van het project gewoon niet begrepen.
Het gaat niet om de steentjes. Educatie, onderwijs, toerisme. De aanvraag paste niet binnen de subsidieregelingen en als hij eenmaal binnen is, kunnen we hem niet meer aanpassen.
Ik snap dat het teleurstellend is. Dat was het voor ons ook. Maar we voelen ons een beetje uitgeblust. Dat klinkt wat hard misschien. Ze blijven voorlopig anoniem, de meeste Limburgse slachtoffers van het naziregime.
Want de provincie geeft geen subsidie. Hoe kon een project rond struikelstenen zo vastlopen? Een reconstructie.
This daily paper has a typical magazine layout with lots of white space. Pimp je sleurhut Een Kip-caravan is ook maar zo gewoontjes. Veel leuker is het om je vakantievoertuig te voorzien van verrassende looks.
Deze drie gingen je voor. Zeven jaar geleden kocht Daan Werts de caravan, in eerste instantie niet met de intentie om hem op te knappen.
Ik heb een paar wanden in de caravan bekleed met plakplastic, het lijkt op steigerhout, maar het is een soort vinyl.
Op de vloer heb ik Portugese tegels die lijken van steen te zijn, maar dat is ook plakplastic. Ik wist niet dat je je caravan zo makkelijk zelf kon pimpen.
De caravan was dertien jaar oud, dus dan durf je ook wel wat aan te passen. Zonde om daar iets aan te veranderen.
Eenmaal op de camping kleed ik onze caravan van buiten met een tafel, stoelen en accessoires net zo gezellig aan als binnen. Onze kinderen van 5, 9 en 11 jaar slapen nog het liefste bij ons in de caravan.
Ze maken de lampionlampjes aan en zijn helemaal in vakantiesfeer. Charles Rubens was altijd al gecharmeerd van oldtimers; zijn eerste was een Volkswagen Kever.
Tot er kinderen kwamen en de kinderwagen niet goed in de auto paste. Charles en zijn vriendin Linda 33 kochten daarop een Volkswagen T1 bus.
Toen ik de bus kocht was hij van binnen helemaal kaal, alleen voorin zat een bank. Zelf heb ik er onder meer een slaapbank, opklapbaar tafeltje, een campingstekker, een tweede accu en diverse kastjes ingebouwd.
De deuren heb ik bekleed met hout en opbergvakken. De dakkast die ik gemaakt heb, is ideaal om campingspullen in op te bergen.
Ik vind het leuk om aparte details toe te voegen zoals het Jezusbeeldje op de versnellingspook. Of Charles en Linda nu naar een Volkswagen-treffen gaan of een dagtripje met de kinderen Femm 5 en Ize 1,5 maken, de bus staat altijd garant voor gezelligheid en bekijks.
Soms maakt de familie Rubens een uitje naar McDonald's en mogen de kinderen de frietjes in de Volkswagenbus opeten.
Daan kan niet wachten totdat ze weer met het hele gezin op de camping staat. The lower row shows caravans that are individually furnished by their owners.
Nederlander die zes implantaten kreeg, nadat een keeper me tijdens een wedstrijd voor VVV alle boventanden uit de mond had getrapt. Toch ging ik fluitend door het leven.
Handelsblatt GmbH Abonnentenservice Tel. Jugend: Thomas Middelhoff kommt in Düsseldorf zur Welt. Er ist der dritte Spross von Mutter Christine und Vater Heinrich und wird in eine wohlhabende Kaufmannsfamilie geboren.
Kurz nach der Geburt ziehen die Middelhoffs ins benachbarte Ratingen, wo auch ihre Textilfirma beheimatet ist.
Das Gymnasium verlässt Middelhoff nach der zehnten Klasse. Mohndruck-Assistenz Gütersloh: Nach beruflichen Anfängen im elterlichen Betrieb bewirbt sich Middelhoff beim Medienkonzern Bertelsmann.
Die erhoffte Assistentenstelle bei Bertelsmann-Chef Mark Wössner bekommt er nicht. Middelhoff startet eine Etage tiefer, als Assistent eines Geschäftsführers der Bertelsmann-Druckerei Mohndruck.
Knast-Biografie Anklage In seinem Buch, begonnen in Zelle A des Essener Gefängnisses, schildert Middelhoff eindringlich die Ohnmacht des Häftlings gegenüber dem überkommenen Justizsystem.
Manager-Biografie Zeuge Als HandelsblattReporter war Massimo Bognanni fasziniert vom Middelhoff-Prozess.
Ermittler Für seine kritische Biografie sprach Bognanni mit zahlreichen Weggefährten Middelhoffs.
Middelhoffs akribische Beschreibung der Parallelwelt hinter Gittern hat journalistische Kraft. Er lenkt den Blick auf einen ignorierten Bereich der Gesellschaft.
Zur Kritik in eigener Sache reicht es beim Chefkritiker des Justizsystems nur in Ansätzen. Das Gericht wertete es anders. Sie sind an entscheidenden Stellen nicht ehrlich mit uns gewesen — vielleicht auch nicht mit sich selbst.
In der Haft gerettet hat den guten Katholiken und ehemaligen Oberministranten Middelhoff sein Glauben.
In seiner besten Zeit wurde Thomas Middelhoff in zwei Währungen bezahlt: in Geld und in Aufmerksamkeit. Gelegenheiten hätte es genug gegeben.
Berger, der 6,7 Millionen für ein gemeinsames missratenes Geschäft vorgestreckt hatte, will das nicht kommentieren. Zwar ist Middelhoff dankbar für die Freunde und Kollegen, die insgesamt Euro Kaution zahlten.
Ihn enttäuscht allerdings, dass einige der Unterstützer partout nicht genannt werden wollten. Am meisten aber ärgert ihn ein Mann, der als Mentor für Middelhoffs Karriere bei Bertelsmann verantwortlich war: Mark Wössner, 78, einst in Gütersloh Chef des Vorstands und dann des Aufsichtsrats.
Vorstand Bertelsmann: Gegen viele Widerstände, vor allem bei Verantwortlichen von Mohndruck, befördert Bertelsmann-Chef Mark Wössner Middelhoff zum Vorstand.
Sein Aufgabengebiet: Strategie und zentrale Unternehmensentwicklung. Früh erkennt der Strategievorstand die Bedeutung des Internets und verhandelt mit Steve Case von AOL und Microsoft-Chef Bill Gates.
AOL macht das Rennen. Middelhoff rückt in das AOL-Board auf. Die beiden Manager werden zu Geschäftsfreunden. Bei ihrem JointVenture AOL Europe sollen die Amerikaner die Internetplattform bieten, Bertelsmann soll die Inhalte liefern.
Bleibt die Frage, wo das ganze Geld ist, die schätzungsweise fast Millionen Euro, die Middelhoff in 25 Jahren verdient hat. Investcorp zum Beispiel, die Private-Equity-Firma in arabi-.
Als Europa-Chef von Investcorp und Leiter der Sparte Technology Invest verdiente Middelhoff allein zwischen und rund 13 Millionen Euro.
Er war glücklich bei Investcorp, die Familie erwog bereits eine Übersiedlung nach London. Doch Middelhoff war noch nicht fertig mit Corporate Germany.
Die Turnaround-Träume lösten sich langsam in Luft auf. Auf Middelhoffs Abgang bei Arcandor wenige Monate vor der Insolvenz folgten weitere Stationen des beruflichen wie privaten Abstiegs.
Ohne die Arcandor-Pleite wären all die Ungereimtheiten bei Flügen und Festschriften wohl niemals aufgeflogen. Es ist also nur angemessen zu konstatieren, dass Middelhoff vor allem an sich selbst gescheitert ist, aber auch ein bisschen an Deutschland.
Am März , wenige Monate nach der Verurteilung, reichte er noch aus der Untersuchungshaft den Antrag auf Privatinsolvenz ein. Middelhoff hatte sich im Privaten Teures geleistet, vielleicht als Symbol, jetzt dazuzugehören zum Kreis der wirklich erlauchten Gesellschaft.
Middelhoff ist erfüllt von der Arbeit mit Behinderten, sein altes Lebensmodell existiere nicht mehr, seine Ehe sei zerbrochen.
Immer diese Medien gen Vorstandschef Christoph Achenbach. So ist das mit den Geistern, die man und Aufmerksamkeit.
Er wusste selbst nur zu ruft. Als es gut lief, war er ein Meister des Agendasettings. Es logen. Zum Beispiel zum wurde am Ende vor Thema, ob er als Karallem ein Protokoll stadt-Quelle-Chef nicht in der Leiden am deuteinem Interessenkonflikt schen Justizsystem.
Alle 15 Minuten war und eng mit dem Erfinder Überwachung der EinzelzelQuelle: Middelhoffdieser Finanzkonstruktionen kole wurde angeordnet, eine Autobiografie alierte, seinem Vermögensverwalter Doppelzelle, die die Überwachung Josef Esch.
Er ist nun krank, abgemagert. Operationicht nur, er leidet. Sein Biograf Bognanni berichtet anderes. WoSelbst in dieser Phase war die Presse also keimöglich spielt dabei ein Bericht des nordrheinneswegs nur Middelhoffs Feind, sondern auch westfälischen Justizministeriums eine Rolle.
Dasein Verbündeter. Tatsächlich zieht es sich als nach hätten während der Zeit der Beobachtung Konstante durch Middelhoffs Vita, dass er sich Middelhoffs weder der Gefangene noch seine stets Medien zunutze machte.
Klagen über den Schlafentzug und GesundSeine letzte Homestory beinhaltete eine andere heitsprobleme seien der Anstaltsleitung erst Präsentation des Glücks, erneut für die SZ.
Middelhoff machte es persönlich, wo andere In seiner neuen Rolle als Justizkritiker hat Distanz wahrten. Ich suchte wie ein Abhängiger die Anerkennung der Medien, den Zuspruch des Mentors, das Lob des Eigentümers.
Das Bild von mir, das ich bei anderen oder in der Öffentlichkeit zeichnen wollte, hatte nichts mehr mit dem Menschen zu tun, der ich eigentlich bin.
Middelhoff, ein Hamster im Rad, der erst durch die Haft ein höheres Stadium der Weisheit erlangt? Mag sein, doch womöglich erleben wir hier auch nur das nächste von Middelhoff geschaffene Konstrukt seiner selbst.
Regis setzte. Geld machte man in jenen Tagen an der Börse, wo aus Ideen Milliarden wurden, und so brachte Middelhoff den Internetbuchhandel Barnesandnoble.
Wössner erfuhr offenbar, wie ihn damals bei Bertelsmann der CEO Middelhoff aus dem Posten des Chefaufsehers hinausintrigiert habe. Der Aufseher musste gehen, der Manager durfte bleiben.
Dabei hatte Wössner zunächst Middelhoffs Karriereweg planiert, obwohl der Neue im Vergleich zu all den High Potentials gar nicht so blendend dastand: Gymnasium geschmissen, zweiter Bildungsweg, die Dissertation von Münster nach Saarbrücken verlegt.
Aber dieser Kandidat hat etwas, spürt Wössner, etwas Hochpräsentes, Extrovertiertes. Und so bringt Wössner Middelhoff als Assistent bei der Bertelsmann-Tochter Mohndruck unter.
Nur vier Jahre später wird Middelhoff dort Chef. Doch schon damals liegt ihm das schnöde Operative offenbar nicht so recht.
Als er sich von Mohndruck verabschiedet, hinterlässt er vor allem schlechte Zahlen. Als vier Jahre später der nächste Karriereschritt anstand, war Werner der Einzige im Bertelsmann-Aufsichtsrat, der sich weigerte, Middelhoff seine Stimme zur Wahl als CEO zu geben.
Die Ironie der Geschichte ist es, dass ausgerechnet eine in graues Leinen gebundene Festschrift zum Geburtstag von Mark Wössner Middelhoff vor Gericht zum Verhängnis wurde.
In seinen wildesten Zeiten, berichten Zeitgenossen, musste Thomas Middelhoff nach dem Aufwachen schon mal kurz überlegen, wo er sich gerade befindet.
New York? Middelhoffs Königscoup aber war der Verkauf von Aktien des US-Internetriesen AOL und Anteilen an AOL Europe, mit deren Erwerb seine Vorstandskarriere in Gütersloh begonnen hatte.
Allein dieser Deal brachte Bertelsmann sieben Milliarden Dollar ein. Hinzu kamen die erfolgreichen Komplettübernahmen von RTL und Random House.
Doch seine Pläne, am Ende Bertelsmann selbst zu knapp 50 Prozent an die Börse zu bringen, verstanden die Mohns als Kampfansage. Bei Arcandor dann jagte Middelhoff wie gehabt dem Deal der Deals hinterher.
Was einmal Karstadt-Quelle war, sollte langfristig zu Thomas Cook werden: Bei dem britischen Reiseveranstalter hatte Middelhoff die Mehrheit übernommen und die Neuerwerbung flugs mit dem Rivalen MyTravel verschmolzen.
Umbau musste auf Umbau folgen. Die Schulden stiegen, das Stammgeschäft darbte. Selten ist die Entfremdung eines leidenden Angestellten klarer zum Ausdruck gebracht worden als in diesen Bekenntnissen aus Zelle A Es geht nicht nur um einen Menschen, es geht auch um seine Epoche.
Um Managerwelten und Medienkonstrukte. Middelhoffs Name war Codewort für vieles. In einer Ära, als Daimler Chrysler kaufte, als Goldman Sachs an die Börse ging und die Deutsche Bank wie Goldman Sachs sein wollte, da war Middelhoff der eloquente, lächelnde, überaktive, daueroptimistische Repräsentant des Wandels.
Gescheitert ist er am Ende an sich selbst, aber auch an Deutschland. Sein Tempo, seine Sucht nach Effekt, seine Show der bunten Lichter, ja auch der gelegentliche Wahnwitz seiner Entwürfe von neuen Firmenwelten — das alles überforderte Land und Leute.
Es war auch zu viel für die Bertelsmann-Eigentümerfamilie Mohn in Gütersloh. Doch dahinter hatte sich mit dem Platzen der Internetblase auch die Mentalität in Deutschland zurückgedreht.
Man sang in der bundesrepublikanischen Wirtschaft wieder das Loblied auf organisches Wachstum, solide Eigenkapitalquoten und langfristige Investitionshorizonte.
Nicht mehr der Börsenstar am Neuen Markt war nun das Leitbild, sondern der Familienunternehmer in mindestens dritter Generation.
Middelhoff entschwand kurzzeitig in die Londoner Private-Equity-Branche, wo ihn dieser deutsche Stimmungswechsel nicht hätte kümmern müssen.
Sein extravaganter Lebensstil wäre hier wohl kaum aufgefallen. Doch London konnte Middelhoff, dem namenlosen Fondsmanager unter lauter namenlosen Fondsmanagern, nicht bieten, was der bekennende Ex-Narzisst begehrte: öffentliche Aufmerksamkeit.
Doch sein Gebaren passte nicht mehr in die gewandelte Deutschland AG und erst recht nicht zu einem Handelsunternehmen in Finanznöten.
Middelhoff als Kostendrücker, der die Einkaufskonditionen von Feinstrumpfhosen nachverhandelt? Im Rückblick eine absurde Vorstellung.
Im unternehmerischen Alltagsgrau der Stammgeschäfte scheiterte er häufig. Und so endete diese Karriere quasi zwangsläufig so extrem, wie sie begonnen hatte: mit einer dreijährigen Haftstrafe wegen privater Flüge und einer ebenso privaten Festschrift, beides abgerechnet auf Arcandor-Kosten.
Mit Verwunderung nimmt Middelhoff zur Kenntnis, dass er am Ende für den überschaubaren Schaden von Euro verurteilt wurde. Zu beobachten ist: ein Kampf um die Wahrheit — oder was man dafür halten kann.
Gleich zwei neue Bücher behandeln eine langjährige Leitfigur der deutschen Wirtschaft. Das eine Buch ist Thomas Middelhoffs vor wenigen Tagen ausgelieferte Autobiografie, das Papier gewordene Selbstbild eines Mannes, der über den Dingen stets ein wenig zu schweben schien und der nun im Gefängnis publizistisch seine Reise zum eigenen Ich bewältigt.
Fremdbild steht gegen Selbstbild. Beiden gemein ist die Bewegungsrichtung nach unten und die Erkenntnis, dass es im Wirtschaftsleben des Thomas Middelhoff nie langweilig zuging.
Aber das war es auch schon mit den Gemeinsamkeiten. Selten ist das Ringen um Deutungshoheit, um die richtige Sichtweise auf ein Phänomen direkter, plastischer ausgetragen worden als in diesem Duell zweier Bücher.
Richard Baxter, John Locke, Meric Casaubon, Joseph Glanvil, and Francis Hutchinson, ranged one side the other.
Thus the ordinary Englishman would have reasonable grounds for being ignorant the power witches, the various opinions held relative them. Ireland, the other hand with the solitary exception a pamphlet , which may may not have been locally printed there not the slightest trace any witchcraft literature being published the country until reach the opening years the nineteenth century.
All our information therefore with respect Ireland comes from incidental notices books and from sources across the water. There confusion between cause and effect; books witchcraft would, naturally, the result witch-trials, but their turn they would the means spreading the idea and introducing the notice people who otherwise might never have shown the least interest the matter.
Thus the absence this form literature Ireland seriously hindered the advance the belief and consequent practice witchcraft. When did witchcraft make its appearance Ireland, and what was its progress therein?
With our present knowledge cannot trace its active existence Ireland further back than the Kyteler case ; and this, though was almost[ 13] certainly the first occasion which the evil made itself apparent the general public, yet seems have been only the culmination events that had been quietly and unobtrusively happening for some little time previously.
The language used the Parliament with reference the case would lead infer that nothing remarkable worthy note the way witchcraft sorcery had occurred the country during the intervening century and a quarter.
For another hundred years nothing recorded, while the second half the sixteenth century furnishes with two cases and a suggestion several others. Others, possessing a little common sense, place the number three thousand, but even this far too high.
Yet seems beyond all doubt that more witches were sent the gallows that particular period than any other English history.
Ireland seems have escaped scot- free—[ 14] least have not been able find any instances recorded witch trials that time.
Probably the terribly disturbed state the country, the tremendous upheaval the Cromwellian confiscations, and the various difficulties and dangers experienced the new settlers would largely account for this immunity.
Notestein shows that the tales apparitions and devils, knockings and strange noises, with which English popular literature the period filled, are indications a very overwrought public mind; similar stories Ireland, also indicative a similar state tension, some examples are given chapter.
Though the first half the seventeenth 7. Thus the seventeenth century was the period par excellence of witchcraft, demonology, and the supernatural Ireland.
After the period decadence reached, while between that date and nothing has been found, though may safely inferred that that blank was filled incidents similar the case Mary Butters and others, described the final chapter; and possibly too, [ 16] England, savage outbursts the part the ignorant and credulous multitude.
Witchcraft never flourished any great extent Ireland, nor did anything ever occur which was worthy the name persecution—except perhaps a sequel the Kyteler case, and the details which fear will never recovered.
The first part this statement must taken generally and not pressed too closely, based almost entirely negative evidence,.
Ireland can produce nothing like this, for, have already shown, all printed notices Irish witchcraft, with one possible exception, are recorded books published outside the country.
Nevertheless, all likely sources, both. The Elizabethan Act was passed account cases recorded and unrecorded that had arisen the country; while, human nature being what , seems likely that the very passing that Statute the Irish Parliament was itself a sufficient incentive the witches practise their art.
Moor, well from a consideration the prevalence the belief amongst all classes society, may[ 18] be inferred that far more 8. Future students old documents may able bear out this statement, and supply information present unavailable.
Nor all clear that torture was employed England similar trials. Notestein thinks that there are some traces , which cannot however certainly proved, except one particular instance towards the end the reign James I, though this was for the exceptional crime practising sorcery and therefore high treason against that too credulous king.
Was its use ever legalised Act Parliament either country? Scotland, the other hand, was employed with terrible frequency; there was hardly a trial for witchcraft sorcery but some the unfortunates incriminated were subjected this terrible ordeal.
Even late torture was judicially applied [ 20] extract evidence, for that year a Jacobite gentleman was questioned the boots. The repetition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition the first; one sorceress Germany suffered this continuation less than fifty-sixtimes.
Nor was the punishment death fire for witchcraft sorcery employed any extent Ireland. How the two witches were put death are not told, but probably was hanging.
Subsequent the passing the Act the method execution would[ 21] have been that for felony. Between and more than six thousand sorcerers were burnt the diocese Strasburg, while, can credit the figures Bartholomew Spina, Lombardy a thousand sorcerers a year were put death for the space twenty-five years3] The total number persons executed various ways for this crime has, according 9.
This was especially true the earlier stages the movement when sorcery rather than witchcraft was the crime committed. For there a general distinction between the two 22] though many instances they are confounded.
Sorcery was, speak, more aristocratic pursuit; the sorcerer was the master the Devil until his allotted time expired and compelled him his bidding: the witch generally belonged the lower classes, embodied her art many practices which lay the borderland between good and evil, and was rather the slave Satan, who almost invariably proved a most faithless and unreliable employer.
For illustration from this country the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton. Anybody might become a victim the witch epidemic; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy—none were immune from accusation and condemnation.
Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; S. The books that have been consulted and which have contained information relative Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved use are fully referred the text footnotes the present volume.
DAME ALICE KYTELER, THE SORCERESS KILKENNY The history the proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler and her confederates account their dealings unhallowed arts found a.
Dame Alice Kyteler such apparently being her maiden name the facile princeps of Irish witches, was a member a good Anglo-Norman family that had been settled[ 26] in the city Kilkenny for many years.
The coffin-shaped tombstone one her ancestors, Jose Keteller, who died preserved S. The lady question must have been far removed from the popular conception a witch old woman striking ugliness, else her powers attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded leading four husbands the altar.
She had been married, first, William Outlawe Kilkenny, banker; secondly, Adam Blund Callan; thirdly, Richard Valle—all whom she was supposed have got rid poison; and fourthly, Sir John Poer, whom was said she deprived his natural senses philtres and incantations.
The Bishop Ossory this period was Richard Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and Englishman birth. The following charges were laid against them.
They had denied the faith Christ absolutely for a year a month, according the object they desired gain through sorcery was greater less importance.
During all that period they believed none the doctrines the Church; they did not adore the Body Christ, nor enter a sacred building hear mass, nor make use consecrated bread holy water.
It is stated by some writers on the authority, we believe, of an early editor of Hudibras that during the rule of the Commonwealth Parliament thirty thousand witches were put to death in England.
Others, possessing a little common sense, place the number at three thousand, but even this is far too high. Yet it seems to be beyond all doubt that more witches were sent to the gallows at that particular period than at any other in English history.
Ireland seems to have escaped scot-free—at [Pg 14] least we have not been able to find any instances recorded of witch trials at that time.
Probably the terribly disturbed state of the country, the tremendous upheaval of the Cromwellian confiscations, and the various difficulties and dangers experienced by the new settlers would largely account for this immunity.
Notestein  shows that the tales of apparitions and devils, of knockings and strange noises, with which English popular literature of the period is filled, are indications of a very overwrought public mind; of similar stories in Ireland, also indicative of a similar state of tension, some examples are given in chapter IV.
We cannot blame them for this; could anything else be expected from men who, clergy and laity alike, were saturated with the superstitions that were then so prominent in the two countries from which their ranks had been recruited?
Thus the seventeenth century was the period par excellence of witchcraft, demonology, and the supernatural in Ireland.
After the period of decadence is reached, while between that date and nothing has been found, though it may be safely inferred that that blank was filled by incidents similar to the case of Mary Butters and others, as described in the final chapter; and possibly too, as in [Pg 16] England, by savage outbursts on the part of the ignorant and credulous multitude.
Witchcraft never flourished to any great extent in Ireland, nor did anything ever occur which was worthy of the name of persecution—except perhaps as a sequel to the Kyteler case, and the details of which we fear will never be recovered.
The first part of this statement must be taken generally and not pressed too closely, as it is based almost entirely on negative evidence, i.
Ireland can produce nothing like this, for, as we have already shown, all printed notices of Irish witchcraft, with one possible exception, are recorded in books published outside the country.
Nevertheless, if all likely sources, both in MS. The Elizabethan Act was passed on account of cases recorded and unrecorded that had arisen in the country; while, human nature being what it is, it seems likely that the very passing of that Statute by the Irish Parliament was in itself a sufficient incentive to the witches to practise their art.
No belief really gains ground until it is forbidden; then the martyrs play their part, and there is a consequent increase in the number of the followers.
Moor, as well as from a consideration of the prevalence of the belief amongst all classes of society, it may [Pg 18] be inferred that far more cases of witchcraft occurred in Ireland during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries than one imagines, though in comparison with other countries their numbers would be but small.
Future students of old documents may be able to bear out this statement, and to supply information at present unavailable.
To deal with the subject of witchcraft in general, with its psychology or with the many strange items which it included, would be out of place in a work exclusively devoted to one particular country, nor indeed could it be adequately dealt with in the space at our disposal; it is necessary, however, to say a few words on the matter in order to show by comparison how much pain and unhappiness the people of Ireland escaped through the non-prevalence of this terrible cult amongst them.
In the first place, to judge from the few witch-trials recorded, it may be claimed that torture as a means of extracting evidence was never used upon witches in Ireland excepting the treatment of Petronilla of Meath by Bishop de Ledrede, which seems to have been carried out [Pg 19] in what may be termed a purely unofficial manner.
It would be interesting indeed to work through the extant Records for the purpose of seeing how often torture was judicially used on criminals in Ireland, and probably the student who undertakes the investigation will find that this terrible and illogical method of extracting the truth!
Nor is it at all clear that torture was employed in England in similar trials. Notestein  thinks that there are some traces of it, which cannot however be certainly proved, except in one particular instance towards the end of the reign of James I, though this was for the exceptional crime of practising sorcery and therefore high treason against that too credulous king.
Was its use ever legalised by Act of Parliament in either country? In Scotland, on the other hand, it was employed with terrible frequency; there was hardly a trial for witchcraft or sorcery but some of the unfortunates incriminated were subjected to this terrible ordeal.
Even as late as torture was judicially applied to [Pg 20] extract evidence, for in that year a Jacobite gentleman was questioned by the boots.
The repetition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction by which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition of the first; one sorceress in Germany suffered this continuation no less than fifty-six times.
Nor was the punishment of death by fire for witchcraft or sorcery employed to any extent in Ireland. We have one undoubted instance, and a general hint of some others as a sequel to this.
How the two witches were put to death in we are not told, but probably it was by hanging. Subsequent to the passing of the Act of the method of execution would [Pg 21] have been that for felony.
On the Continent the stake was in continual request. In three hundred persons were burnt alive for this crime at Como. Between and more than six thousand sorcerers were burnt in the diocese of Strasburg, while, if we can credit the figures of Bartholomew de Spina, in Lombardy a thousand sorcerers a year were put to death for the space of twenty-five years.
In the persecution of those who practised magical arts no rank or class in society was spared; the noble equally with the peasant was liable to torture and death.
This was especially true of the earlier stages of the movement when sorcery rather than witchcraft was the crime committed.
For there is a general distinction between the two, [Pg 22] though in many instances they are confounded. Sorcery was, so to speak, more of an aristocratic pursuit; the sorcerer was the master of the Devil until his allotted time expired , and compelled him to do his bidding: the witch generally belonged to the lower classes, embodied in her art many practices which lay on the borderland between good and evil, and was rather the slave of Satan, who almost invariably proved to be a most faithless and unreliable employer.
For an illustration from this country of the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton.
Anybody might become a victim of the witch epidemic; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy—none were immune from accusation and condemnation.
Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; in S. In conclusion, we have not considered it necessary to append a bibliography.
The books that have been consulted and which have contained no information relative to Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved of use are fully referred to in the text or footnotes of the present volume.
The history of the proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler and her confederates on account of their dealings in unhallowed arts is to be found in a MS.
Dame Alice Kyteler such apparently being her maiden name , the facile princeps of Irish witches, was a member of a good Anglo-Norman family that had been settled [Pg 26] in the city of Kilkenny for many years.
The coffin-shaped tombstone of one of her ancestors, Jose de Keteller, who died in —, is preserved at S. The lady in question must have been far removed from the popular conception of a witch as an old woman of striking ugliness, or else her powers of attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded in leading four husbands to the altar.
She had been married, first, to William Outlawe of Kilkenny, banker; secondly, to Adam le Blund of Callan; thirdly, to Richard de Valle—all of whom she was supposed to have got rid of by poison; and fourthly, to Sir John le Poer, whom it was said she deprived of his natural senses by philtres and incantations.
The Bishop of Ossory at this period was Richard de Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and an Englishman by birth.
He soon learnt that things were not as they should be, for when making a visitation of his diocese early in he found by an Inquisition, in which were five knights and numerous [Pg 27] nobles, that there was in the city a band of heretical sorcerers, at the head of whom was Dame Alice.
The following charges were laid against them. They had denied the faith of Christ absolutely for a year or a month, according as the object they desired to gain through sorcery was of greater or less importance.
During all that period they believed in none of the doctrines of the Church; they did not adore the Body of Christ, nor enter a sacred building to hear mass, nor make use of consecrated bread or holy water.
They offered in sacrifice to demons living animals, which they dismembered, and then distributed at cross-roads to a certain evil spirit of low rank, named the Son of Art.
In their nightly meetings they blasphemously imitated the power of the Church by fulminating sentence of excommunication, with lighted candles, even against their own husbands, from the sole of their foot to the crown of their head, naming each part expressly, and then concluded by [Pg 28] extinguishing the candles and by crying Fi!
In order to arouse feelings of love or hatred, or to inflict death or disease on the bodies of the faithful, they made use of powders, unguents, ointments, and candles of fat, which were compounded as follows.
They also stated that her present husband, Sir John le Poer, had been reduced to such a condition by sorcery and the use of powders that he had [Pg 29] become terribly emaciated, his nails had dropped off, and there was no hair left on his body.
The said dame had a certain demon, an incubus, named Son of Art, or Robin son of Art, who had carnal knowledge of her, and from whom she admitted that she had received all her wealth.
On ascertaining the above the Bishop wrote to the Chancellor of Ireland, Roger Outlawe, who was also Prior of the Preceptory of Kilmainham, for the arrest of these persons.
The Chancellor in reply wrote to the Bishop stating that a warrant for arrest could not be obtained until a public process of excommunication had been in force for forty days, while Sir Arnold also wrote requesting him to withdraw the case, or else to ignore it.
As might be [Pg 31] expected, she ignored the citation, and fled immediately. Foiled in this, he cited her son William for heresy.
Upon this Sir Arnold came with William to the Priory of Kells, where De Ledrede was holding a visitation, and besought him not to proceed further in the matter.
Finding entreaty useless he had recourse to threats, which he speedily put into execution. As the Bishop was going forth on the following day to continue his visitation he was met on the confines of the town of Kells by Stephen le Poer, bailiff of the cantred of Overk, and a posse of armed men, by whom he was arrested under orders from Sir Arnold, and lodged the same day in Kilkenny jail.
This naturally caused tremendous excitement in the city. The place became ipso facto subject to an interdict; the Bishop desired the Sacrament, and it was brought to him in solemn procession by the Dean and Chapter.
Seeing this, William Outlawe nervously informed Sir Arnold of it, who thereupon decided to keep the Bishop in closer restraint, but subsequently changed his mind, and allowed him to have companions with him day and night, and also granted free admission to all his friends and servants.
After De Ledrede had been detained in prison for seventeen days, and Sir Arnold having thereby attained his end, viz.
The latter refused to sneak out like a released felon, but assumed his pontificals, and, accompanied by all the clergy and a throng of people, made his way solemnly to S.
With a pertinacity we cannot but admire he again cited William Outlawe by public proclamation to appear before him, but before the day arrived the Bishop [Pg 33] was himself cited to answer in Dublin for having placed an interdict on his diocese.
He excused himself from attending on the plea that the road thither passed through the lands of Sir Arnold, and that in consequence his life would be in danger.
Though we have lost sight for a while [Pg 34] of Dame Alice, yet she seems to have been eagerly watching the trend of events, for now we find her having the Bishop summoned to Dublin to answer for having excommunicated her, uncited, unadmonished, and unconvicted of the crime of sorcery.
This was granted, and in the presence of the council and the assembled prelates they mutually gave each other the kiss of peace. Affairs having come to such a satisfactory conclusion the Bishop had leisure to turn his attention to the business that had unavoidably been laid aside for some little time.
He directed letters patent, praying the Chancellor to seize the said Alice Kyteler, and also directed the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Dublin to cite her to respond on a certain day in Kilkenny before the Bishop.
But the bird escaped again out of the hand of the fowler. Dame Alice fled a second time, on this occasion [Pg 35] from Dublin, where she had been living, and it is said made her way to England, where she spent the remainder of her days unmolested.
Several of her confederates were subsequently arrested, some of them being apparently in a very humble condition of life, and were committed to prison.
Their names were: Robert of Bristol, a clerk, John Galrussyn, Ellen Galrussyn, Syssok Galrussyn, William Payn de Boly, Petronilla of Meath, her daughter Sarah,  Alice the wife of Henry Faber, Annota Lange, and Eva de Brownestown.
When the Bishop arrived in Kilkenny from Dublin he went direct to the prison, and interviewed the unfortunates mentioned above.
They all immediately confessed to the charges laid against them, and even went to the length of admitting other crimes of which no mention had been made; but, according to them, Dame Alice was the mother and mistress of them all.
Upon this the Bishop wrote letters on the 6th of June to the Chancellor, and to the Treasurer, Walter de Islep, requesting them to order the Sheriff to attach the bodies of these people and put [Pg 36] them in safe keeping.
But a warrant was refused, owing to the fact that William Outlawe was a relation of the one and a close friend of the other; so at length the Bishop obtained it through the Justiciary, who also consented to deal with the case when he came to Kilkenny.
Before his arrival the Bishop summoned William Outlawe to answer in S. The latter appeared before him, accompanied by a band of men armed to the teeth; but in no way overawed by this show of force, De Ledrede formally accused him of heresy, of favouring, receiving, and defending heretics, as well as of usury, perjury, adultery, clericide, and excommunications—in all thirty-four items were brought forward against him, and he was permitted to respond on the arrival of the Justiciary.
On the same day the Bishop caused a great fire to be lit in the middle of the town in which he burnt the sackful of magical stock-in-trade, consisting of powders, ointments, human nails, hair, herbs, worms, and other abominations, which the reader will remember he had received from Sir John le Poer at an early stage in the proceedings.
Further trouble arose with William Outlawe, who was backed by the Chancellor and Treasurer, but the Bishop finally succeeded in beating him, and compelled him to submit on his bended knees.
By way of penance he was ordered to hear at least three masses every day for the space of a year, to feed a certain number of poor people, and to cover with lead the chancel of S.
He thankfully agreed to do this, but subsequently refused to fulfil his obligations, and was thereupon cast into prison. One of them, Petronilla of Meath, was made the scapegoat for her mistress.
The Bishop had her flogged six times, and under the repeated application of this form of torture she made the required confession of magical practices.
She declared that although she herself was mistress of the Black Art, yet she was as nothing in comparison with the Dame from whom she had learnt all her knowledge, and that there was no one in the world more skilful than she.
This was the first instance of the punishment of death by fire being inflicted in Ireland for heresy. And thus, by the authority of Holy Mother Church, and by the special grace of God, that most foul brood was scattered and destroyed.
Sir Arnold le Poer, who had taken such a prominent part in the affair, was next attacked. The Bishop accused him of heresy, had him excommunicated, and committed prisoner to Dublin Castle.
His innocency was believed in by most people, [Pg 41] and Roger Outlawe, Prior of Kilmainham, who also figures in our story, and who was appointed Justiciary of Ireland in , showed him some kindness, and treated him with humanity.
This so enraged the Bishop that he actually accused the Justiciary of heresy. A select committee of clerics vindicated the orthodoxy of the latter, upon which he prepared a sumptuous banquet for his defenders.
Le Poer died in prison the same year, , before the matter was finally settled, and as he was under ban of excommunication his body lay unburied for a long period.
But ultimately the tables were turned with a vengeance. De Ledrede was himself accused of heresy by his Metropolitan, Alexander de Bicknor, upon which he appealed to the Holy See, and set out in person for Avignon.
He endured a long exile from his diocese, suffered much hardship, and had his temporalities seized by the Crown as well. In he recovered the royal favour, but ten years later further accusations were brought to the king against him, in consequence of which the temporalities were a second time taken up, and other [Pg 42] severe measures were threatened.
However, by the storm had blown over; he terminated a lengthy and disturbed episcopate in , and was buried in the chancel of S. Gangster Alice Capone Costume Stretch satin button front vest with removable underwire lightly padded lace bra and matching skirt with adjustable zipper side slits.
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TO SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART. Dear Sir — Having been considerably occupied since I had the honour of waiting on you with Mr David Laing, I have not until now been able to overtake a sketch of the Pro- posals for forming a Society here, on the principles mentioned in conversation with you.
Before Mr Laing left town I had another conversation with him, when he jotted down a few hints, and requested me to draw up Proposals for your revision, as it appeared to be very desirable that every thing should be now fixed, as soon as consistent with your leisure, in order that the Committee to be appointed may have sufficient time to prepare Tracts for the first General Meeting.
I now inclose a note of what occurs to me as most useful to be considered before calling a Meeting, and as Mr Laing will return by the time these Proposals can be printed, I will fed obliged by your correcting and returning them to me at your convenience, and I will have a proof copy waiting Mr L.
It seems difficult to hit upon one which is both short and intelligible. Robert Pitcairn. Walter Scott, being the one alluded to in this and the following Letter.
Another set had been presented to DaTid Constable, Esq. Messrs Maid- ment and Pitcairn have each one ; and the sixth, it is understood, is now in the possession of the Right Hon.
Thomas Grenville. It maj be perhaps unnecaMary exactly to determine the number of the Club. I think we wiD make up thirty good men and true. Nothing else occurs upon the Proposals, which I retoTD.
A sufficient number should be spoken to before circulating the Proposals, in case of hH'mg through, which would look rather foolish.
Your most obedient servant, Walter Scott. CMtle Street, Sundaj Night, February 2, Dbar Sir — I have just read your note of Sunday evening.
For the reasons men- tioned by you, it teems much better to wait until Mr D. Laing returns to town ; and per- haps it might be prudent not to print or circulate Proposals, but have two or three written copies made, to shew to such persons as may be fixed on by you as likely to be useful and proper members ; and then a meeting of these gentlemen might be called, and resolutions entered into, which could easily be effected without the matter becoming public, until every- thing is arranged.
ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE, ESQ. I take the liberty of recommending that the Rules should not be numerous. There is great difficulty in fixing on a name.
Sir Walter Scott has said, and with much truth, that as our objects are not to be entirely those of the London Roxburghe Club, we ought not to adopt the same title.
Unfortunately, Scotland has had few Collectors to boast of, and I fancy we must adopt the name of one of them. We cannot propose it to Sir Walter Scott, but, as you observed the other day, there could not have been any hesitation, under different circumstances, of christening it at once " Abbotsford.
They are — Sir William St Clair of Rosslyn, end of 1 6th century. Sir Thomas Hamilton, Earl of Melrose, and afterwards Earl of Haddington.
Sir David Lindesay, first Earl of Balcarras, — Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun. William Drummond of Hawthornden.
Sir John Scott of Scotstarvet. Sir James Balfour of Denmyln. George Mackenzie, first Earl of Cromarty. Thomas Ruddiman. Robert Miln, Writer, Edinburgh.
Alexander Stuart of Duneam. Walter Macfarlane of Macfarlane. Sir John Gordon of Invergorden. Alexander Boswell, Lord Aochinleck.
George Paton. Archibald Swinton of Kimmerghame. Sir Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck. Of printers, Eldward Raban, as Sir Walter Scott suggests, would be very appropriate.
The only other printer that occurs to me is Thomas Bassandyne. Edward Raban was a printer in Edinburgh before going to St Andrews or Aberdeen, and he thoeli " in the Cowgaie at the sign of the A.
Raban was an Englishman, however, which constitutes an objection. He was a native of Gloucester, or Worcestershire, I forget which.
How would "The A. With regard to the Regulations, I have made some marks in the margin, and I suggest that not more than sixty copies of each book should be printed, being two for each member.
There should be, besides, eleven copies for Stationers' Hall. We must avoid every appear- ance of commercial objects, and I am therefore decidedly of opinion that no copies of any thing ought to be printed for sale.
The books of the Roxburghe Club acquire a great value from their limited number. The object of the Edinburgh Club should be directed more to the publication of MSS.
I shall have the honour of conversing with Sir Walter Scott on the whole affair the first time I have an opportunity of seeing him.
Indeed, his opinion should regulate every thing. I fer:l particularly obliged to you for " The Funerals of Queen Mary," the publication of which does you much credit.
There is not another copy known. TO ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE, ESQ. My Dear Sir — I received your most welcome letter, returning the sketch of Regula- tions for the proposed Roxburghe Club, this morning.
Your most judicious and useful hints relative to the minutuB of this Society have afforded me niucli p1 ;asure, and, had not an unlucky accident confined me chiefly to bed ever since, I would have waited on you this forenoon.
You have given a delightful variety of names, many of which would afford an excellent title to the proposcid Club. Those wliich at first glance strike my fancy are — " The Bassan- dyne Qub," " The Ercildoune Qub," " The Auchinleck Club," " The Hawthomden Qub ;" or what do you say to " The Melrose Club?
The chief, I may almost say the only, merit of his press is the present rarity of a few of his books, none of which are famous for typographical excellence.
All that now remains to be done is, that you should, when your health permits, see Sir Walter Scott, and talk over the matter with him, and make out between you a list of per- sons proposed to be spoken with and invited to become Members of the Club, and our friend D.
Laing will afford a helping hand. Whilst on the subject of Bannatyne, we cannot help observing that Dr Dibdin, in his Reminiscences, vol.
TO DAVID LAING, ESQ. My Dear Sir— Mr Constable having the copy of the sketch of Proposals for the Gub, which Sir Walter Scott returned without any material correction, I send you the scroll of these Proposals, so that you may see Mr Constable and Sir Walter Scott when convenient.
Mr Constable means to wait on Sir Walter Scott the first day he can, and talk over the matter with him. The sooner you see him and fix the particulars the better ; for it would be a pity to let the matter drop, when every thing seems in such a good train.
I will be happy to have a call from you, or a note if you are better occupied, of the result of your visit to Sir Walter Scott and Mr Constable.
February II, EXTRACT FROM LETTER SIR WALTER SCOTT TO DR DIBDIN. It will not be uninteresting to you to know, that a fraternity is about to be established here something on the plan of the Roxburghe Club, but having Scotch Antiquities chiefly in view.
Tlieir first meeting is to be held on Thursday, when the health of the Roxburghe Club will not fail to be drank. The finit Dinner Meeting of the Bannatyne Clab was held in Barry's Hotd on Febmarj 27th.
The following names were taken from the bill, in the order of their insertion in Ifr Jiarrv'tt list :— A PARTY OF GENTLEMEN.
Sir Walter Scott, Baut. Messrs John Clerk [afterwards Lord Eldin]. James Ballantyne. James Maidment.
David Constable. Henry Jardine Croupier. George Smythe. David Laing. Thomas Kinnear. Robert Dundas. Robert Bell. Archibald Constable. But Sir Walter Scott's zeal overcame all difficulties; and it may truly be said it was to his exertions, almost exclusively, that the subsequent prosperity of the Club may be ascribed.
The letters on Dempster are singularly curious specimens of angry and unjus- tifiable criticism, and were evidently written imder the influence of feelings not of the most amiable description.
AVhen this collection was originally projected, it was not sup- posed that it would extend to half its present size. In conse- quence, however, of an unexpected increase of materials, the work became necessarily more bulky.
To meet the additional expense thus occasioned, fifty instead of thirty copies have been thrown off, all of which have been subscribed for.
April 16, Bannatyne Qub 2 , 8 4. New Ldterary Society,. December 30, ,. Bibliomania, January? Transactions of the Bannatyne Club, No.
Observations on Sir Frederick Madden's edition of Havelok the Dane, includ- ing Strictures on the Bannatyne Club, by T.
Repp, F. Notice relative to the Memoirs of Sir James Turner, from do. Review of the Memoirs of Sir James Turner, from the London Literary Gazette, 61 VIII.
Thomas M'Crie, D. Attila's Corrections for the last edition of Dempster, from do. Sir Peter Nimmo's Letter to Attila, from do.
Its members consist of a limited number, each of whom contribute an annual sum, to be expended in printing, in an uniform and handsome manner, a series of works illustrative of the History, Topography, Poetry, and Miscellaneous Literature of Scotland, ift former times.
An Album is kept, in which notices of ancient manuscripts, books and tracts, transmitted by the members, are to be inserted ; and from this Record a selection is to be made, from time to time, for the purpose of publica- tion.
It is unnecessary to add, that they spent a delightful evening under the roof of the hospitable Baronet. And my theme b the BANNATYNE CLUB!
I shall shortly attempt, and a fig for the muse. In prose to depaint every feature aright; If it should be a daub, I will give no excuse; So m rush to my task, like the horse to the fight.
Amidst the almost innumerable Clubs, for all objects and purposes, which seem to start into notice every day, it is with feelings of no ordinary interest that we sit down to notice one whose existence was originally intended for, and will continue to be marked by, the revival or renewal of our old Scotish Literature.
THE BANNATYNE CLUB. At their last meeting, on the 18th November , there were only eighteen members being just double the number of the muses present, the rest being unavoidably absent ; but this was amply compensated by the cordiality and conviviaUty of those few, and the hours flew with most unaccountable rapidity, amid the " immortal memories" of our Warriors, Statesmen, and Poets, which each one joined to ingulph in a bumper of champaigne.
As for their past-ten-o'clock deeds, are they not over all the house? We shall now turn our attention to the fruit of their past year's labour, and it will be found to be worthy of the glorious good old cause which they have undertaken.
And first in order comes the " JBatmatgiu CrarlatiH, 0to. One volume more, my friends! We will ransack old Banny for one volume more!
Still leaves us the task to print one volume more! One volume more, my fnendsl one volume more! One vcJume more, my fnendsl one volume more!
Correct and sagacious, now comes my Lord Hailes, And he weighs every letter in critical scales; But he left out those words which the prudish abhor, And he castrated Banny in one volume more!
Well restore Banny's manhood in one volume more!